A type of biorepository called a “gene bank” stores genetic material. People store plants in vitro, freeze cuttings from them or keep the seeds in a safe place (e.g., in a seed bank). For animals, this is done by putting sperm and eggs in zoological freezers until they need to be used. There are specific rules when it comes to corals.
A “gene bank” is a place where people can store their genetic material in various ways, like freezing it at -196° Celsius in liquid nitrogen or putting it in artificial ecosystems.
Accession is used to describe a single sample in a gene bank, like a unique species or variety.
People can grow plants with material that has been frozen. Animals, on the other hand, need a live female to be artificially inseminated. There are many examples of people who have used frozen animal sperm and eggs to make babies.
Gene banks keep the plant genetic resources of major crops and their crop wild relatives safe. There are a lot of gene banks around the world, but the Svalbard Global Seed Vault is thought to be the most well-known one.
Few studies have put a dollar value on the specific help genebanks give to crop improvement. There is a lot of work involved in this task, so Smale (2006) thinks that the economic benefits of using crop diversity in breeding can’t be accurately calculated. However, he thinks that long-term preservation and maintenance costs in genebanks aren’t worth it. Having a wide range of different types of plants that can be tested in various places is very important for crop improvement programs to work. GCCCE activities cost about $800 million (in 2002 dollars)
Over the years from 1970 to 2010, according to a study by the Standing Panel on Impact Assessment of the CGIAR. The Standing Panel did the study on the Impact Assessment of the CGIAR (Robinson and Srinivasan, 2013). This is based on a study of rice varieties released in 2012. It found that all IRRI rice varieties and 90% of rice varieties released by national programs had at least one IRRI genebank accession in their pedigrees (CGIAR, 2013).
In the United States, according to N.L. Johnson et al. (2003a), the International Center for Tropical Agriculture’s genebank has been utilized in around 60 percent of the bean varieties that have been issued since 1976. (CIAT). CGIAR researchers and breeders will almost certainly agree that international genebanks have had a significant influence on how successfully the organization operates. It seems that the acceptance of only a few newer kinds may compensate for the CGIAR’s 40-year investment in GCCCE operations, if done correctly. In particular, extensive case studies of rice in Asia, the cassava variety KU50 in Thailand, and the potato Cooperation 88 in China are used to support this claim.